Health Reports & Data

Adolescent Health

Goal

Improve the healthy development, health, safety, and well-being of adolescents and young adults.

Overview

Adolescents (ages 10 to 19) and young adults (ages 20 to 24) make up 21 percent of the population of the United States.1The behavioral patterns established during these developmental periods help determine young people’s current health status and their risk for developing chronic diseases in adulthood.2

Although adolescence and young adulthood are generally healthy times of life, several important public health and social problems either peak or start during these years. Examples include:

  • Homicide
  • Suicide
  • Motor vehicle crashes, including those caused by drinking and driving
  • Substance use and abuse
  • Smoking
  • Sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • Teen and unplanned pregnancies
  • Homelessness

Because they are in developmental transition, adolescents and young adults are particularly sensitive to environmental—that is, contextual or surrounding—influences.3 Environmental factors, including family, peer group, school, neighborhood, policies, and societal cues, can either support or challenge young people’s health and well-being.4 Addressing the positive development of young people facilitates their adoption of healthy behaviors and helps to ensure a healthy and productive future adult population.5

Why is adolescent health important?

Adolescence is a critical transitional period that includes the biological changes of puberty and the need to negotiate key developmental tasks, such as increasing independence and normative experimentation.3, 5, 6

There are many examples of effective policies and programs that address adolescent health issues. They include:

  • State graduated driver licensing programs7
  • Teen pregnancy prevention programs8, 9
  • Violence prevention programs10, 11, 12, 13
  • Delinquency prevention programs14
  • Mental health and substance abuse interventions15, 16
  • HIV prevention interventions17, 18

The financial burdens of preventable health problems in adolescence are large and include the long-term costs of chronic diseases that are a result of behaviors begun during adolescence. For example, the annual adult health-related financial burden of cigarette smoking, which usually starts by age 18,19, 20 is $193 billion.21

There are significant disparities in outcomes among racial and ethnic groups. In general, adolescents and young adults who are African American, American Indian, or Hispanic, especially those who are living in poverty, experience worse outcomes in a variety of areas (examples include obesity,22, 23 teen pregnancy,24 tooth decay,25 and educational achievement26) compared to adolescents and young adults who are white.

Additional Resources

HP2020’s National Objectives for Adolescent Health

References

  1. U.S. Census Bureau. 2008 population estimates: National characteristics, national sex, age, race and Hispanic origin. Washington: 2008. Available from: http://www.census.gov/popest/data/historical/2000s/vintage_2008/index.html
  2. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. Committee on Adolescent Health Care Services and Models of Care for Treatment, Prevention, and Healthy Development. Adolescent health services: Missing opportunities. Lawrence RS, Gootman JA, Sim LJ, editors. Washington: National Academies Press, 2009. Available from: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12063&page=1
  3. Mulye TP, Park MJ, Nelson CD, et al. Trends in adolescent and young adult health in the United States. J Adolesc Health. 2009;45(1):8-24. Available from: http://download.journals.elsevierhealth.com/pdfs/journals/1054-139X/PIIS1054139X09001244.pdf
  4. National Research Council, Panel on High-Risk Youth, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Losing generations: Adolescents in high-risk settings. Washington: National Academies Press; 1993. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=2113&page=1
  5. McNeely C, Blanchard J. The teen years explained: A guide to healthy adolescent development. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Center for Adolescent Health; 2009. Available from: http://www.jhsph.edu/adolescenthealth
  6. Halfon N, Hochstein M. Life course health development: An integrated framework for developing health, policy and research. Milbank Q. 2002;80(3):433-79. Available from: http://www.milbank.org/quarterly/8003feat.html
  7. National Research Council, Institute of Medicine, and Transportation Research Board; Committee for a Workshop on Contributions from the Behavioral and Social Sciences in Reducing and Preventing Teen Motor Crashes. Preventing teen motor crashes: Contributions from the behavioral and social sciences, workshop report. Washington: National Academies Press; 2007. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11814&page=1
  8. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Office of Public Health and Science, Office of Adolescent Health. Overview of the teen pregnancy prevention research evidence review. Washington: HHS; 2010. Available from: http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/prevention/research/index.html
  9. National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. Effective program research [Internet]. Washington: National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy; 2010. Available from: http://www.thenationalcampaign.org/resources/effective_programs.aspx
  10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Injury Prevention and Control [Internet]. Best practices of youth violence prevention: A sourcebook for community action. Atlanta: CDC; 2002. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pub/YV_bestpractices.html
  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. STRYVE: Striving to reduce youth violence everywhere [homepage on the Internet]. Atlanta: CDC. Available from: http://www.safeyouth.gov
  12. University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence. Blueprints for violence prevention [homepage on the Internet]. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado; 1996–2010. Available from: http://www.colorado.edu/cspv/blueprints/index.html
  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The effectiveness of universal school-based programs for the prevention of violent and aggressive behavior: A report on recommendations of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services. MMWR. 2007;56(RR-7):1-12. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/rr/rr5607.pdf
  14. Interagency Working Group on Youth Programs. Evidence-based program directory [Internet]. Washington: Interagency Working Group on Youth Programs; 2008. Available from: http://www.findyouthinfo.gov/ProgramSearch.aspx
  15. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). National registry of evidence-based programs and practices [homepage on the Internet]. Rockville, MD: SAMHSA; 2010. Available from: http://www.nrepp.samhsa.gov/
  16. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Preventing mental, emotional and behavioral disorders among young people—Progress and possibilities. O’Connell ME, Boat T, Warner KE, editors. Washington: National Academies Press; 2009. Available from: http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12480
  17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis Project. Compendium of HIV prevention interventions with evidence of effectiveness. Atlanta: 2001. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/reports/hiv_compendium/pdf/HIVcompendium.pdf
  18. National HIV/AIDS Strategy. Washington: The White House; 2010. Available from: http://aids.gov/federal-resources/policies/national-hiv-aids-strategy/nhas.pdf
  19. Schoenborn CA, Vickerie JL, Barnes PM. Cigarette smoking behavior of adults: United States, 1997–98. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, Number 331; 2003 Feb 7. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ad/ad331.pdf
  20. SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies. Results from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National findings (NSDUH Series H-34, DHHS Publication No. SMA 08-4343), Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration; 2008. Chapter 5: Initiation of Substance Use. Available from: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/nsduh/2k7nsduh/2k7results.cfm
  21. Adhikari B, Kahende J, Malarcher A, et al. Smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses—United States, 2000–2004. MMWR. 2008;57(45):1226-8. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5745a3.htm
  22. Ogden, CL, Carroll MD, Curtin, LR, et al. Prevalence of high body mass index in US children and adolescents, 2007-2008. JAMA. 2010;303(93):242-9. Available from: http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/303/3/242
  23. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF), Leadership for Healthy Communities. Overweight and obesity among American Indian and Alaska Native youths [fact sheet]. Princeton, NJ: RWJF; 2010. Available from: http://www.rwjf.org/files/research/20100512lhcamerindian.pdf
  24. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of Reproductive Health. Preventing teen pregnancy 2010-2015. Atlanta: CDC; 2010. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/TeenPregnancy/PDF/TeenPregnancy_AAG.pdf
  25. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of Oral Health. Disparities in oral health. Atlanta: CDC; 2009. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/oralhealth/oral_health_disparities.htm
  26. Freudenberg N, Ruglis J. Reframing school dropout as a public health issue. Prev Chronic Dis. 2007;4(4):1-11. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2007/oct/pdf/07_0063.pdf
ID
OBJECTIVES AND SUB-OBJECTIVES
State Indicator Definition:
Percentage of public school students in grades 6-12 who report they saw a doctor or nurse for a check-up or physical exam when they were not sick or injured in the past 12 months. The state divides this indicator into two groups: grades 6-8 and grades 9-12. The national indicator is defined differently as it includes adolescents aged 10-17 years.

State Baseline:
Grades 6-8,   65.5% (2013)
Grades 9-12,   71.0% (2013)

Most Recent State Value:
Grades 6-8,   65.9% (2015)
Grades 9-12,   71.0% (2015)

HP2020 Target:
National: 75.6%

National Data Source:
National Health Interview Survey

State Data Source:
Hawaii Youth Risk Behavior Survey

Data Reports:
HHDW Report
HHM Report – Grades 6-8
HHM Report – Grades 9-12
DHHS Health Indicators Warehouse

State Indicator Definition:
Percentage of adolescents aged 12-17 years who participated in one or more organized extracurricular and/or out-of-school activity in the past 12 months. The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
85.7% (2011-2012)

HP2020 Target:
National: 90.6%

National Data Source:
National Survey of Children’s Health

State Data Source:
National Survey of Children’s Health, via Data Resource Center for Child & Adolescent Health

Data Reports:
HHM Report
DHHS Health Indicators Warehouse

AH-3
Increase the proportion of adolescents who are connected to a parent or other positive adult caregiver
State Indicator Definition:
Percentage of public school students in grades 6-12 who report they have an adult or teacher they can talk to about things that are important to them. The state divides this indicator into two groups: grades 6-8 and grades 9-12. The national indicator is defined differently as the percentage of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who report they can talk to their parent/guardian or some other adult about things that are serious to them.

State Baseline:
Grades 6-8,   81.5% (2011)
Grades 9-12,   86.4% (2011)

Most Recent State Value:
Grades 6-8,   82.1% (2015)
Grades 9-12,  83.1% (2015)

HP2020 Target:
National: 83.2%

National Data Source:
National Survey on Drug Use and Health

State Data Source:
Hawaii Youth Risk Behavior Survey

Data Reports:
HHDW Report
HHM Report – Grades 6-8
HHM Report – Grades 9-12
DHHS Health Indicators Warehouse

State Indicator Definition:
Percentage of parents who usually or always attend organized extracurricular and/or out-of-school activities in which their 12-17 year-old adolescent participates in the past 12 months. The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
79.3% (2011-2012)

HP2020 Target:
National: 90.3%

National Data Source:
National Survey of Children’s Health

State Data Source:
National Survey of Children’s Health, via Data Resource Center for Child & Adolescent Health

Data Reports:
HHM Report
DHHS Health Indicators Warehouse

AH-5
Increase educational achievement of adolescents and young adults
State Indicator Definition:
Percentage of public school students who graduate with a regular diploma 4 years after starting 9th grade. The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
75.4% (2009-2010)

Most Recent State Value:
81.6% (2014-2015)

HP2020 Target:
National: 87.0%

National Data Source:
Common Core of Data

State Data Source:
Common Core of Data

Data Reports:
HHM Report
DHHS Health Indicators Warehouse

State Indicator Definition:
Percentage of students in 4th grade whose reading skills are at or above the proficient achievement level for their grade. The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
27.0% (2011)

Most Recent State Value:
29.0% (2015)

HP2020 Target:
National: 36.3%

National Data Source:
National Assessment of Educational Progress

State Data Source:
National Assessment of Educational Progress

Data Reports:
HHM Report
DHHS Health Indicators Warehouse

State Indicator Definition:
Percentage of students in 8th grade whose reading skills are at or above the proficient achievement level for their grade. The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
26.0% (2011)

Most Recent State Value:
26.0% (2015)

HP2020 Target:
National: 35.6%

National Data Source:
National Assessment of Educational Progress

State Data Source:
National Assessment of Educational Progress

Data Reports:
HHM Report
DHHS Health Indicators Warehouse

State Indicator Definition:
Percentage of students in 4th grade whose mathematics skills are at or above the proficient achievement level for their grade. The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
40.0% (2011)

Most Recent State Value:
38.0% (2015)

HP2020 Target:
National: 43.0%

National Data Source:
National Assessment of Educational Progress

State Data Source:
National Assessment of Educational Progress

Data Reports:
HHM Report
DHHS Health Indicators Warehouse

State Indicator Definition:
Percentage of students in 8th grade whose mathematics skills are at or above the proficient achievement level for their grade. The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
30.0% (2011)

Most Recent State Value:
30.0% (2015)

HP2020 Target:
National: 37.3%

National Data Source:
National Assessment of Educational Progress

State Data Source:
National Assessment of Educational Progress

Data Reports:
HHM Report
DHHS Health Indicators Warehouse

State Indicator Definition:
Percentage of adolescents aged 12-17 years who reported they always felt the schoolwork assigned to them was meaningful and important. The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
29.8% (2010-2011)

Most Recent State Value:
27.5% (2012-2013)

HP2020 Target:
National: 29.3%

National Data Source:
National Survey on Drug Use and Health

State Data Source:
National Survey on Drug Use and Health

Data Reports:
HHM Report
DHHS Health Indicators Warehouse

State Indicator Definition:
Percentage of public schools in the state of Hawaii with a school breakfast program. The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
100% (2010)

HP2020 Target:
National: 75.5%

National Data Source:
School Health Policies and Programs Study

State Data Source:
Hawaii Department of Education, School Breakfast Program

Data Reports:
DHHS Health Indicators Warehouse

State Indicator Definition:
Percentage of public school students in grades 9–12 were offered, sold, or given an illegal drug on school property during the 12 months prior to the survey. The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
36.1% (2009)

Most Recent State Value:
25.4% (2015)

HP2020 Target:
National: 20.4%

National Data Source:
Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

State Data Source:
Hawaii Youth Risk Behavior Survey

Data Reports:
HHDW Report
HHM Report
DHHS Health Indicators Warehouse

State Indicator Definition:
Percentage of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years whose parents report that they felt their child was usually or always safe at school. The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
87.5% (2011-2012)

HP2020 Target:
National: 95.0%

National Data Source:
National Survey of Children’s Health

State Data Source:
National Survey of Children’s Health, via Data Resource Center for Child & Adolescent Health

Data Reports:
HHM Report
DHHS Health Indicators Warehouse

State Indicator Definition:
Percentage of public secondary schools that report they engage in practices to prohibit harassment based on a student’s perceived or actual sexual orientation or gender identity.

State Baseline:
98.9% (2010)

Most Recent State Value:
86.4% (2014)

HP2020 Target:
National: 92.2

National Data Source:
School Health Profiles

State Data Source:
School Health Profiles

Data Reports:
HHM Report

AH-11
Reduce adolescent and young adult perpetration of, and victimization by, crimes
State Indicator Definition:
Number of arrests among persons aged 10-24 years for crimes included in the Violent Crime Index (murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault) per 100,000 population aged 10-24 years. The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
254 arrests per 100,000 population aged 10-24 years (2010)

Most Recent State Value:
192.6 arrests per 100,000 population aged 10-24 years (2015)

HP2020 Target:
National: 399.6 arrests per 100,000 population aged 10-24 years

National Data Source:
Uniform Crime Reports

State Data Source:
Hawaii State Crime Prevention and Justice Assistance Division

Data Reports:
HHM Report
DHHS Health Indicator Warehouse

State Indicator Definition:
Number of arrests among persons aged 10-24 years for crimes included in the Property Crime Index (burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, arson) per 100,000 population aged 10-24 years. The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
1,173 arrests per 100,000 population aged 10-24 years (2010)

Most Recent State Value:
852.6 arrests per 100,000 population aged 10-24 years (2015)

HP2020 Target:
National: 1,374 arrests per 100,000 population aged 10-24 years

National Data Source:
Uniform Crime Reports

State Data Source:
Hawaii State Crime Prevention and Justice Assistance Division

Data Reports:
HHM Report
DHHS Health Indicators Warehouse