• textsize: A A A

Health Reports & Data

Cancer

Goal

Reduce the number of new cancer cases, as well as the illness, disability, and death caused by cancer.

Overview

Continued advances in cancer research, detection, and treatment have resulted in a decline in both incidence and death rates for all cancers.1 Among people who develop cancer, more than half will be alive in 5 years.2 Yet, cancer remains a leading cause of death in the United States, second only to heart disease.3 The cancer objectives for Healthy People 2020 support monitoring trends in cancer incidence, mortality, and survival to better assess the progress made toward decreasing the burden of cancer in the United States. The objectives reflect the importance of promoting evidence-based screening for cervical, colorectal, and breast cancer by measuring the use of screening tests identified in the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations.4 The objectives for 2020 also highlight the importance of monitoring the incidence of invasive cancer (cervical and colorectal) and late-stage breast cancer, which are intermediate markers of cancer screening success.

In the coming decade, as the number of cancer survivors approaches 12 million,5 understanding survivors’ health status and behaviors will become increasingly important.

Why is Cancer important?

Many cancers are preventable by reducing risk factors such as:

  • Use of tobacco products
  • Physical inactivity and poor nutrition
  • Obesity
  • Ultraviolet light exposure

Other cancers can be prevented by getting vaccinated against human papillomavirus and hepatitis B virus.

Screening is effective in identifying some types of cancers (see USPSTF recommendations), including:

  • Breast cancer (using mammography)
  • Cervical cancer (using Pap tests)
  • Colorectal cancer (using fecal occult blood testing, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy)

In an era of patient-centered care, it is critical to assess whether people understand and remember the information they receive about cancer screening. Research shows that a recommendation from a health care provider is the most important reason patients cite for having cancer screening tests.6

For cancers with evidence-based screening tools, early detection must include the continuum of care from screening to appropriate follow-up of abnormal test results and referral to cancer treatment.7

Additional Resources

HP2020’s National Objectives for Cancer
HHDW Reports on Cancer

References

  1. Edwards BK, Ward E, Kohler BA, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2006, featuring colorectal cancer trends and impact of interventions (risk factors, screening, and treatment) to reduce future rates. Cancer. 2010 Feb 1;116(3):544-73.
  2. National Cancer Institute, Surveillance Research Program. Cancer Statistics Review 1975–2006: Age-adjusted SEER incidence and US death rates and 5-year relative survival rates. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Available from: http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2006/results_merged/topic_survival.pdf
  3. Heron M, Hoyert DL, Murphy SL, et al. Deaths: Final data for 2006. Nat Vital Stat Rep. 2009 Apr 17; 57(14). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr57/nvsr57_14.pdf
  4. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, Topic index: A-Z. [Internet]. Rockville, MD: AHRQ. Available from: http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm
  5. National Cancer Institute (NCI), Surveillance Research Program. Surveillance epidemiology and end results [Internet home page]. Bethesda, MD: NCI. Available from: http://seer.cancer.gov
  6. Schueler KM, Chu PW, Smith-Bindman R. Factors associated with mammography utilization: A systematic quantitative review of the literature. J Womens Health. 2008 Nov;17(9):1477–98.
  7. Zapka JG, Taplin SH, Solberg LI, et al. A framework for improving the quality of cancer care: The case of breast and cervical cancer screening. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003 Jan;12(1):
ID
OBJECTIVES AND SUB-OBJECTIVES
State Indicator Definition:
Number of deaths caused by cancer (ICD-10 codes C00-C97) per 100,000 population (age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. Standard Population). The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
136.4 deaths per 100,000 population (2010)

Most Recent State Value:
131.4 deaths per 100,000 population (2015)

HP2020 Target:
National: 161.4 deaths per 100,000 population

National Data Source:
National Vital Statistics System

State Data Source:
Hawaii Vital Statistics System

Data Reports:
HHDW Report
HHM Report

State Indicator Definition:
Number of deaths caused by lung cancer (ICD-10 code C34) per 100,000 population (age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. Standard Population). The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
33.3 deaths per 100,000 population (2010)

Most Recent State Value:
31.3 deaths per 100,000 population (2015)

HP2020 Target:
National: 45.5 deaths per 100,000 population

National Data Source:
National Vital Statistics System

State Data Source:
Hawaii Vital Statistics System

Data Reports:
HHDW Report
HHM Report

State Indicator Definition:
Number of female deaths due to breast cancer (ICD-10 code C50) per 100,000 population (age-adjusted to the year 2000 standard population). The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
14.5 deaths per 100,000 population (2010)

Most Recent State Value:
18.7 deaths per 100,000 population (2015)

HP2020 Target:
National: 20.7 deaths per 100,000 population

National Data Source:
National Vital Statistics System

State Data Source:
Hawaii Vital Statistics System

Data Reports:
HHDW Report
HHM Report

State Indicator Definition:
Number of deaths caused by cancer of the uterine cervix (ICD-10 code C53) per 100,000 females (age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. Standard Population). The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
1.9 deaths per 100,000 females (2009-2011)

Most Recent State Value:
1.8 deaths per 100,000 females (2013-2015)

HP2020 Target:
National: 2.2 deaths per 100,000 females

National Data Source:
National Vital Statistics System

State Data Source:
Hawaii Vital Statistics System

Data Reports:
HHDW Report
HHM Report

State Indicator Definition:
Number of deaths due to colorectal cancer (ICD-10 codes C18-C21) per 100,000 population (age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. Standard Population). The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
12.8 deaths per 100,000 population (2010)

Most Recent State Value:
10.6 deaths per 100,000 population (2015)

HP2020 Target:
National: 14.5 deaths per 100,000 population

National Data Source:
National Vital Statistics System

State Data Source:
Hawaii Vital Statistics System

Data Reports:
HHDW Report
HHM Report

State Indicator Definition:
Number of deaths due to oropharyngeal cancer (ICD-10 codes C00-C14) per 100,000 persons (age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. Standard Population). The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
2.5 deaths per 100,000 persons (2010-2012)

Most Recent State Value:
2.8 deaths per 100,000 persons (2013-2015)

HP2020 Target:
National: 2.3 deaths per 100,000 persons

National Data Source:
National Vital Statistics System

State Data Source:
Hawaii Vital Statistics System

Data Reports:
HHDW Report
HHM Report

State Indicator Definition:
Number of deaths caused by prostate cancer (ICD-10 code C61) per 100,000 males (age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. Standard Population). The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
15.2 deaths per 100,000 males (2010)

Most Recent State Value:
15.4 deaths per 100,000 males (2015)

HP2020 Target:
National: 21.8 deaths per 100,000 males

National Data Source:
National Vital Statistics System

State Data Source:
Hawaii Vital Statistics System

Data Reports:
HHDW Report
HHM Report

State Indicator Definition:
Number of deaths due to melanoma cancer (ICD-10 code C43) per 100,000 population (age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. Standard Population). The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
1.4 deaths per 100,000 population (2008-2012)

Most Recent State Value:
1.5 deaths per 100,000 population (2011-2015)

HP2020 Target:
National: 2.4 deaths per 100,000 population

National Data Source:
National Vital Statistics System

State Data Source:
Hawaii Vital Statistics System

Data Reports:
HHDW Report
HHM Report

State Indicator Definition:
Number of newly diagnosed cases of colorectal cancer in a year per 100,000 population (age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. Standard Population). The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
46.9 cases per 100,000 population (2006-2010)

Most Recent State Value:
45.6 cases per 100,000 population (2008-2012)

HP2020 Target:
National: 39.9 cases per 100,000 population

National Data Source:
Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program

State Data Source:
Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program

Data Reports:
HHM Report

State Indicator Definition:
Percentage of adults aged 18 years and older who were diagnosed with cancer 5 or more years ago. The national indicator uses relative survival, which takes expected survival into account.

State Baseline:
66.7% (2012)

HP2020 Target:
National: 71.7%

National Data Source:
Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program

State Data Source:
Hawaii Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

Data Reports:
Hawaii-IBIS
HHM Report

State Indicator Definition:
Percentage of women aged 18 years and older who have not had a hysterectomy and who have had a Pap test in the past three years. The national indicator is restricted to women aged 21 to 65 years.

State Baseline:
74.7% (2011)

Most Recent State Value:
70.9% (2015)

HP2020 Target:
National: 93.0%

National Data Source:
National Health Interview Survey

State Data Source:
Hawaii Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

Data Reports:
Hawaii-IBIS
HHM Report

State Indicator Definition:
Percentage of persons aged 50 to 75 years who have had a blood stool test in the past year, a sigmoidoscopy in the past 5 years and a blood stool test in the past 3 years, or a colonoscopy in the past 10 years. The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
59.4% (2011)

Most Recent State Value:
70.5% (2015)

HP2020 Target:
National: 70.5%

National Data Source:
National Health Interview Survey

State Data Source:
Hawaii Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

Data Reports:
Hawaii-IBIS
HHM Report

State Indicator Definition:
Percentage of women aged 40 years and over who have had a mammogram in the past 2 years. The national indicator is restricted to women aged 50 to 74 years

State Baseline:
77.9% (2011)

Most Recent State Value:
78.9% (2015)

HP2020 Target:
National: 81.1%

National Data Source:
National Health Interview Survey

State Data Source:
Hawaii Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

Data Reports:
Hawaii-IBIS
HHM Report

State Indicator Definition:
Percentage of men aged 40 years and older who have discussed the advantages and disadvantages of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test with their health care provider. The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
27.4% (2011)

Most Recent State Value:
23.0% (2015)

HP2020 Target:
National: 15.9%

National Data Source:
National Health Interview Survey

State Data Source:
Hawaii Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

Data Reports:
HHDW Report
HHM Report

C-20
Increase the proportion of persons who participate in behaviors that reduce their exposure to harmful ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and avoid sunburn
State Indicator Definition:
Percentage of adults aged 18 years and older who reported having at least one sunburn in the 12 months prior to the survey. The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
19.0% (2012)

HP2020 Target:
National: 33.8%

National Data Source:
National Health Interview Survey

State Data Source:
Hawaii Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

Data Reports:
HHDW Report
HHM Report

State Indicator Definition:
Percentage of public school students in grades 9-12 who mostly or always use sunscreen when they are outside on a sunny day for more than one hour. The national indicator is defined in exactly the same way.

State Baseline:
10.7% (2013)

HP2020 Target:
National: 11.2%

National Data Source:
Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

State Data Source:
Hawaii Youth Risk Behavior Survey

Data Reports:
Hawaii-IBIS
HHM Report