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Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) Health Indicator Selection

The Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring Survey (PRAMS) collects state-specific, population-based data on maternal attitudes and experiences before, during, and shortly after pregnancy. PRAMS is an annual survey that is conducted throughout the year. It is conducted by the Hawai'i State Department of Health, Family Health Services Division in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PRAMS uses a stratified systematic sample design. Women from some groups are sampled at a higher rate to ensure adequate data are available in smaller but higher risk populations. PRAMS uses the state birth certificate file to select adult women who have had a recent live birth to participate in the survey. Selected women are first contacted by mail. If there is no response to repeated mailings, women are contacted and interviewed by telephone. Participant responses are linked to the infant's birth certificate for additional information. Data collection procedures and instruments are standardized to allow comparisons between states. Results are weighted to represent all women with a recent birth in Hawai'i. In Hawai'i, weighted estimates are available at the state and county level. Additional information about PRAMS and results from other participating states can be found [https://www.cdc.gov/prams/index.htm here.] '''DATA RELEASE NOTES''':[[a href=/report/resource/PRAMSDataReleases.html Click here for PRAMS Data Release notes.]] '''RELATED VIDEOS''':[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xXLOhWLqI3g Click here for the most recent PRAMS Coffee Break webinar.]

  • IndicatorStateCounty
    Mother - county of residence
    From the Birth Certificate. Mother's county of residence.
    SelectN/A
    Mother - PRAMS age group
    From the Birth Certificate. Mother's PRAMS age group (<20, 20-24, 25-34, 35+).
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    Mother - reproductive age group
    From the Birth Certificate. Mother's reproductive age group (<14, 14, 15, 16-17, 18-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45+).
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    Infant - sex
    From the Birth Certificate. Infant's sex.
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    Mother - census race
    From the Birth Certificate. Mother's Census race.
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    Mother - DOH race-ethnicity
    From the Birth Certificate. Mother's DOH race-ethnicity.
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    Mother - program race
    From the Birth Certificate. Mother's program race.
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    Mother - Hispanic or Latina ethnicity
    From the Birth Certificate. Women who are Hispanic or Latina.
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    Mother - education level
    From the Birth Certificate. Mother's education level (2000-2013).
    SelectSelect
    Mother - marital status
    From the Birth Certificate. Mother's marital status grouped into yes vs no. Data not available in 2015.
    SelectSelect
    Mother - poverty level (2 level)
    Based on a series of questions. During the 12 months before your new baby was born, what was your yearly total household income before taxes? During the 12 months before your new baby was born, how many people, including yourself, depended on this income? Grouped into two levels: 0-185% and 186+%.
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    Mother - poverty level (3 level)
    Based on a series of questions. During the 12 months before your new baby was born, what was your yearly total household income before taxes? During the 12 months before your new baby was born, how many people, including yourself, depended on this income? Grouped into three levels: 0-130%, 131-185%, 186+%.
    SelectSelect
    Mother - poverty level (4 level)
    Based on a series of questions. During the 12 months before your new baby was born, what was your yearly total household income before taxes? During the 12 months before your new baby was born, how many people, including yourself, depended on this income? Grouped into four levels: 0-100%, 101-185%, 186-300%, 301+%.
    SelectSelect
    Birth history - primiparous (first child)
    Primiparous comes from the birth certificate and denotes women whose pregnancy was their first live birth. Data not available for 2015.
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  • IndicatorStateCounty
    Insurance - Medicaid/QUEST prior to pregnancy
    During the month before you got pregnant with your new baby, what kind of health insurance did you have? - Medicaid or QUEST.
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    Payment - source for prenatal care
    During your most recent pregnancy, what kind of health insurance did you have to pay for your prenatal care? Question not asked after 2015.
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    Payment - source for prenatal care (Choose a response)
    During your most recent pregnancy, what kind of health insurance did you have to pay for your prenatal care? Question not asked after 2015.
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    Payment - source for delivery
    How was your delivery paid for? Did any of these health insurance plans help you pay for the delivery of your new baby? Question not asked after 2011.
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    Payment - source for delivery (Choose a response)
    How was your delivery paid for? Did any of these health insurance plans help you pay for the delivery of your new baby? Question not asked after 2011.
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    Oral health - dental insurance during pregnancy
    This question is about the other care of your teeth during your most recent pregnancy. - I had insurance to cover dental care during my pregnancy.
    SelectSelect

    • IndicatorStateCounty
      Cigarettes - smoked 3 months before pregnancy
      Calculated based on: In the 3 months before you got pregnant, how many cigarettes did you smoke on an average day? (A pack has 20 cigarettes) Among women who smoked cigarettes within the 2 years before they got pregnant.
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      Cigarettes - avg smkd per day before pregnancy
      In the 3 months before you got pregnant, how many cigarettes did you smoke on an average day? (A pack has 20 cigarettes.) Among women who smoked cigarettes within the 2 years before they got pregnant.
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      Cigarettes - avg smkd per day before pregnancy (Choose a response)
      In the 3 months before you got pregnant, how many cigarettes did you smoke on an average day? (A pack has 20 cigarettes.) Among women who smoked cigarettes within the 2 years before they got pregnant.
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      Alcohol - drank 3 months before pregnancy
      Calculated based on: During the 3 months before you got pregnant, how many alcoholic drinks did you have in an average week? Women who had more than 0 drinks.
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      Alcohol - binge drinking 3 months before pregnancy
      Calculated based on: During the 3 months before you got pregnant, how many times did you drink 4 alcoholic drinks or more in a two hour time span? Women who binge drank 1 or more times.
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      Illicit drugs - used 1 month before pregnancy
      Did you use any of these drugs in the month before you got pregnant? - Amphetamines (uppers, ice, speed, crystal, crank) - Cocaine (rock, coke, crack) or heroin (smack, horse) - Marijuana (pot, bud) or hashish (hash) - Sniffing gasoline, glue, hairspray, or other aerosols - Tranquilizers (downers, ludes) or hallucinogens (LSD/acid, PCP/angel dust, ecstasy) Question not asked after 2015.
      SelectSelect
    • IndicatorStateCounty
      Preconception health - discussed with HCW before pregnancy
      Before you got pregnant with your new baby, did a doctor, nurse, or other health care worker talk with you about how to prepare for a healthy pregnancy and baby? Question not asked after 2011.
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      Multivitamins/folic acid - during the month before pregnancy
      During the month before you got pregnant with your new baby, how many times a week did you take a multivitamin, a prenatal vitamin, or a folic acid vitamin?
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      Multivitamins/folic acid - during the month before pregnancy (Choose a response)
      During the month before you got pregnant with your new baby, how many times a week did you take a multivitamin, a prenatal vitamin, or a folic acid vitamin?
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      Oral health - teeth cleaned in 12 months before pregnancy
      At any time during the 12 months before you got pregnant with your new baby, did you do any of the following things? - Teeth cleaned by dentist or hygienist. Question not asked after 2015.
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      BMI - status before pregnancy
      Based on mother's height and weight prior to pregnancy. Obese (BMI>=30), Overweight (25 <= BMI < 30), Recommended range (18.5 <= BMI < 25), Underweight (BMI < 18.5)
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      BMI - status before pregnancy (Choose a response)
      Based on mother's height and weight prior to pregnancy. Obese (BMI>=30), Overweight (25 <= BMI < 30), Recommended range (18.5 <= BMI < 25), Underweight (BMI < 18.5)
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      Chronic disease - asthma before pregnancy
      During the 3 months before you got pregnant with your new baby, did you have any of the following health conditions? - Asthma
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      Chronic disease - depression before pregnancy
      During the 3 months before you got pregnant with your new baby, did you have any of the following health conditions? - Depression (2009-2011 and 2016+).
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      Chronic disease - diabetes before pregnancy
      Before you got pregnant with your new baby, were you ever told by a doctor, nurse, or other health care worker that you had Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes? (2009-2015). OR During the 3 months before you got pregnant with your new baby did you have any of the following health conditions? - Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes (2016+)
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      Chronic disease - high blood pressure before pregnancy
      Before you got pregnant with your new baby, did a doctor, nurse, or other HCW tell you that you had any of the following health conditions? - High blood pressure (2012-2015). OR During the 3 months before you got pregnant with your new baby, did you have any of the following health conditions? - High blood pressure (2016+).
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      Chronic disease - thyroid problems before pregnancy
      During the 3 months before you got pregnant with your new baby, did you have any of the following health conditions? - Thyroid problems
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      Birth history - number of previous live births
      Number of previous live births.
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      Birth history - number of previous live births (Choose a response)
      Number of previous live births.
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      Physical abuse - by husb/ptnr 12 mos before preg (2009+)
      During the 12 months before pregnancy, did your husband or partner push, hit, slap, kick, choke, or physically hurt you in any other way?
      SelectSelect
    • IndicatorStateCounty
      Intention - intended pregnancy (2012+)
      Calculated indicator based on: Thinking back to just before you got pregnant with your new baby, how did you feel about becoming pregnant? Women who responded that they wanted to be pregnant sooner or wanted to be pregnant then.
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      Intention - pregnancy intention (2012+)
      Thinking back to just before you got pregnant with your new baby, how did you feel about becoming pregnant? Responses included: wanted to be pregnant sooner or then (intended), wanted to be pregnant later (mis-timed), did not want to pregnant then or at any time in the future (unintended), and not sure what they wanted (not sure).
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      Intention - pregnancy intention (2012+) (Choose a response)
      Thinking back to just before you got pregnant with your new baby, how did you feel about becoming pregnant? Responses included: wanted to be pregnant sooner or then (intended), wanted to be pregnant later (mis-timed), did not want to pregnant then or at any time in the future (unintended), and not sure what they wanted (not sure).
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      No contraception at conception - didn't mind getting pregnant
      Based on a series of questions. When you got pregnant with your new baby, were you or your husband or partner doing anything to keep from getting pregnant? What were your or your husband's or partner's reasons for not doing anything to keep from getting pregnant? - I didn't mind if I got pregnant
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      No contraception at conception - thought couldn't get pregnant
      Based on a series of questions. When you got pregnant with your new baby, were you or your husband or partner doing anything to keep from getting pregnant? What were your or your husband's or partner's reasons for not doing anything to keep from getting pregnant? - I thought I could not get pregnant at that time
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      No contraception at conception - side effects
      Based on a series of questions. When you got pregnant with your new baby, were you or your husband or partner doing anything to keep from getting pregnant? What were your or your husband's or partner's reasons for not doing anything to keep from getting pregnant? - I had side effects from the birth control method I was using
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      No contraception at conception - problems getting it
      Based on a series of questions. When you got pregnant with your new baby, were you or your husband or partner doing anything to keep from getting pregnant? What were your or your husband's or partner's reasons for not doing anything to keep from getting pregnant? - I had problems getting birth control when I needed it
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      No contraception at conception - thought she or partner was sterile
      Based on a series of questions. When you got pregnant with your new baby, were you or your husband or partner doing anything to keep from getting pregnant? What were your or your husband's or partner's reasons for not doing anything to keep from getting pregnant? - I thought my husband or partner or I was sterile (could not get pregnant at all)
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      No contraception at conception - husband/partner didn't want to
      Based on a series of questions. When you got pregnant with your new baby, were you or your husband or partner doing anything to keep from getting pregnant? What were your or your husband's or partner's reasons for not doing anything to keep from getting pregnant? - My husband or partner didn't want to use anything
      SelectSelect

    • IndicatorStateCounty
      Cigarettes - smoked last 3 months of pregnancy
      Calculated based on: In the last 3 months of your pregnancy, how many cigarettes did you smoke on an average day? (A pack has 20 cigarettes) Among women who smoked cigarettes within the 2 years before they got pregnant.
      SelectSelect
      Cigarettes - avg smkd per day last 3 months of pregnancy
      In the last 3 months of your pregnancy, how many cigarettes did you smoke on an average day? (A pack has 20 cigarettes.) Among women who smoked cigarettes within the 2 years before they got pregnant.
      SelectSelect
      Cigarettes - avg smkd per day last 3 months of pregnancy (Choose a response)
      In the last 3 months of your pregnancy, how many cigarettes did you smoke on an average day? (A pack has 20 cigarettes.) Among women who smoked cigarettes within the 2 years before they got pregnant.
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      Cigarettes - advised to quit smoking by HCW during PNC, among smokers
      During any of your prenatal care visits, did a doctor, nurse, or other healthcare worker advise you to quit smoking? Question not asked after 2011.
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      Cigarettes - quit smoking during pregnancy
      Based on a series of questions. In the 3 months before you got pregnant, how many cigarettes did you smoke on an average day? (A pack has 20 cigarettes.) In the last 3 months of your pregnancy, how many cigarettes did you smoke on an average day? (A pack has 20 cigarettes.) A woman who smoked in the 3 months before she got pregnant but not in the last 3 months of pregnancy is considered to have quit during pregnancy.
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      Alcohol - drank last 3 months of pregnancy
      Calculated based on: During the last 3 months of your pregnancy, how many alcoholic drinks did you have in an average week? Women who had more than 0 drinks.
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      Illicit drugs - used during pregnancy
      Did you use any of these drugs when you were pregnant? - Amphetamines (uppers, ice, speed, crystal, crank) - Cocaine (rock, coke, crack) or heroin (smack, horse) - Marijuana (pot, bud) or hashish (hash) - Sniffing gasoline, glue, hairspray, or other aerosols - Tranquilizers (downers, ludes) or hallucinogens (LSD/acid, PCP/angel dust, ecstasy) Question not asked after 2011.
      SelectSelect
    • IndicatorStateCounty
      Oral health - talked with HCW about care during pregnancy
      This question is about the care of your teeth during your most recent pregnancy. - A dental or other health care worker talked with me about how to care for my teeth and gums
      SelectSelect
      Oral health - teeth cleaned during pregnancy
      Did you have your teeth cleaned by a dentist or dental hygienist during the time periods listed below? - during pregnancy.
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      Oral health - needed a dentist during pregnancy
      This question is about the care of your teeth during your most recent pregnancy. - I needed to see a dentist for a problem
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      Oral health - dental visit for problem during pregnancy
      This question is about other care of your teeth during your most recent pregnancy. - I went to a dentist or dental clinic about a problem
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      Flu shot - offered by HCW in the 12 months b/f delivery
      During the 12 months before the delivery of your new baby, did a doctor, nurse, or other health care worker offer you a flu shot or tell you to get one?
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      Flu shot - received in the 12 months b/f delivery
      During the 12 months before the delivery of your new baby, did you get a flu shot?
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      HIV - test during pregnancy
      At any time during your pregnancy or delivery, did you have a test for HIV? Question not asked after 2015.
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      BMI - gained recommended amount of weight during pregnancy
      Based on pre-pregnancy body mass index and question: By the end of your most recent pregnancy, how much weight had you gained? Guidelines for recommended weight gain during pregnancy were established by the Institute of Medicine. Question not asked after 2015.
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      Diabetes - gestational diabetes
      During your most recent pregnancy, were you told by a doctor, nurse, or other health care worker that you had gestational diabetes (diabetes that started during this pregnancy)?
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      Physical abuse - by husb/ptnr during pregnancy (2009+)
      During your most recent pregnancy, did your husband or partner push, hit, slap, kick, choke, or physically hurt you in any other way?
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      Stress - 2 or more stressors during pregnancy
      This question is about things that may have happened during the 12 months before your new baby was born. a. A close family member was very sick and had to go into the hospital b. I got separated or divorced from my husband or partner c. I moved to a new address d. I was homeless or had to sleep outside, in a car, or in a shelter e. My husband or partner lost his job f. I lost my job even though I wanted to go on working g. My husband, partner, or I had a cut in work hours or pay h. I was apart from my husband or partner due to military deployment or extended work-related travel i. I argued with my husband or partner more than usual j. My husband or partner said he didn't want me to be pregnant k. I had problems paying the rent, mortgage, or other bills l. My husband, partner, or I went to jail m. Someone very close to me had a problem with drinking or drugs n. Someone very close to me died Question not asked after 2015.
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      WIC - participation during pregnancy
      During your pregnancy, were you on WIC (the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children)?
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    • IndicatorStateCounty
      PNC - received early and adequate prenatal care
      Based on a series of questions to calculate a value for the Kotelchuck index (Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization index) for appropriate prenatal care. Index for whether mother received early and adequate prenatal care. Question not asked after 2013.
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      PNC - trimester of first visit
      How many weeks or months pregnant were you when you had your first visit for prenatal care? Question not asked after 2013.
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      PNC - trimester of first visit (Choose a response)
      How many weeks or months pregnant were you when you had your first visit for prenatal care? Question not asked after 2013.
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      PNC - received as early as wanted
      Did you get prenatal care as early in your pregnancy as you wanted? Question not asked after 2011.
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      PNC - attended childbirth class
      During your most recent pregnancy, did you take a class or classes to prepare for childbirth and learn what to expect during labor and delivery? Question not asked after 2015.
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      PNC - discussed breastfeeding with HCW
      During any of your prenatal care visits, did a doctor, nurse, or other health care worker talk with you about breastfeeding your baby? Question not asked after 2015.
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      PNC - discussed effects of smoking with HCW
      During any of your prenatal care visits, did a doctor, nurse, or other health care worker talk with you about how smoking during pregnancy could affect your baby? Question not asked after 2015.
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      PNC - discussed seat belt use with HCW
      During any of your prenatal care visits, did a doctor, nurse, or other health care worker talk with you about using a seat belt during pregnancy? Question not asked after 2015.
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      PNC - discussed HIV testing with HCW
      During any of your prenatal care visits, did a doctor, nurse, or other health care worker talk with you about getting tested for HIV (the virus that causes AIDS)? Question not asked after 2015.
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      PNC - discussed physical abuse with HCW
      During any of your prenatal care visits, did a doctor, nurse, or other health care worker talk with you about physical abuse to women by their husbands or partners? Question not asked after 2015.
      SelectSelect

    • IndicatorStateCounty
      Breastfeeding - initiation
      Did you ever breastfeed or pump breast milk to feed your new baby after delivery, even for a short period of time?
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      Breastfeeding - still
      Are you still breastfeeding or feeding pumped milk to your new baby?
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      Breastfeeding - (exclusive) duration (grouped)
      Based on a series of questions and the baby's age at the time the questionnaire was completed. Did you ever breastfeed or pump breast milk to feed your new baby after delivery, even for a short period of time? Are you currently breastfeeding or feeding pumped milk to your new baby? How old was your new baby the first time he or she ate food (such as baby cereal, baby food, or any other food)? How old was your new baby the first time he or she drank liquids other than breast milk (such as formula, water, juice, tea, or cow's milk)?
      SelectSelect
      Breastfeeding - (exclusive) duration (grouped) (Choose a response)
      Based on a series of questions and the baby's age at the time the questionnaire was completed. Did you ever breastfeed or pump breast milk to feed your new baby after delivery, even for a short period of time? Are you currently breastfeeding or feeding pumped milk to your new baby? How old was your new baby the first time he or she ate food (such as baby cereal, baby food, or any other food)? How old was your new baby the first time he or she drank liquids other than breast milk (such as formula, water, juice, tea, or cow's milk)?
      SelectSelect
      Breastfeeding - (exclusive) duration 8+ weeks
      Based on a series of questions and the baby's age at the time the questionnaire was completed. Did you ever breastfeed or pump breast milk to feed your new baby after delivery, even for a short period of time? Are you currently breastfeeding or feeding pumped milk to your new baby? How old was your new baby the first time he or she ate food (such as baby cereal, baby food, or any other food)? How old was your new baby the first time he or she drank liquids other than breast milk (such as formula, water, juice, tea, or cow's milk)?
      SelectSelect
      Breastfeeding - (any) duration (grouped)
      Based on a series of questions and the baby's age at the time the questionnaire was completed. Did you ever breastfeed or pump breast milk to feed your new baby after delivery, even for a short period of time? Are you currently breastfeeding or feeding pumped milk to your new baby?
      SelectSelect
      Breastfeeding - (any) duration (grouped) (Choose a response)
      Based on a series of questions and the baby's age at the time the questionnaire was completed. Did you ever breastfeed or pump breast milk to feed your new baby after delivery, even for a short period of time? Are you currently breastfeeding or feeding pumped milk to your new baby?
      SelectSelect
      Breastfeeding - (any) duration 8+ weeks
      Based on a series of questions and the baby's age at the time the questionnaire was completed. Did you ever breastfeed or pump breast milk to feed your new baby after delivery, even for a short period of time? Are you currently breastfeeding or feeding pumped milk to your new baby?
      SelectSelect
      Breastfeeding - liquid supplement 1st week
      Based on a series of questions. Did you ever breastfeed or pump breast milk to feed your new baby after delivery, even for a short period of time? How old was your new baby the first time he or she drank liquids other than breast milk (such as formula, water, juice, tea, or cow's milk)?
      SelectSelect
    • IndicatorStateCounty
      Post-partum - depression (2012+)
      Based on a series of questions. Since your new baby was born, how often have you felt down, depressed, or hopeless? Since your new baby was born, how often have you had little interest or little pleasure in doing things? Women were considered to have post-partum depression if they answered 'Always' or 'Often' to either of these questions.
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      Post-partum - depression (2009-2011)
      Mothers who responded that they felt hopeless, down, depressed, sad, or slowed down to the question: "Below is a list of feelings and experiences that women sometimes have after childbirth. Read each item to determine how well it describes your feelings and experiences." Question not asked after 2011.
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      Post-partum - health checkup
      Since your new baby was born, have you had a postpartum checkup for yourself?
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    • IndicatorStateCounty
      Contraception - used after pregnancy
      Since your new baby was born, are you or your husband or partner doing anything now to keep from getting pregnant?
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      Contraception after pregnancy - tubal ligation or vasectomy
      Based on a series of questions. Are you or your husband or partner doing anything now to keep from getting pregnant? What are your or your husband's or partner's reasons for not doing anything to keep from getting pregnant now?- Tubes tied or blocked. What kind of birth control are you or your husband or partner using now to keep from getting pregnant? - Tubes tied or blocked; - Vasectomy.
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      Contraception after pregnancy - used IUDs or implants
      Based on a series of questions. Are you or your husband or partner doing anything now to keep from getting pregnant? What kind of birth control are you or your husband or partner using now to keep from getting pregnant? Among women who are doing something to keep from getting pregnant.
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      Contraception after pregnancy - used pills, shots, rings or patches
      Based on a series of questions. Are you or your husband or partner doing anything now to keep from getting pregnant? What kind of birth control are you or your husband or partner using now to keep from getting pregnant? Among women who are doing something to keep from getting pregnant.
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      Contraception after pregnancy - used condoms
      Based on a series of questions. Are you or your husband or partner doing anything now to keep from getting pregnant? What kind of birth control are you or your husband or partner using now to keep from getting pregnant? Among women who are doing something to keep from getting pregnant.
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      Contraception after pregnancy - natural planning or withdrawal
      Based on a series of questions. Are you or your husband or partner doing anything now to keep from getting pregnant? What kind of birth control are you or your husband or partner using now to keep from getting pregnant? Among women who are doing something to keep from getting pregnant.
      SelectSelect
      Contraception after pregnancy - abstinence
      Based on a series of questions. Are you or your husband or partner doing anything now to keep from getting pregnant? What kind of birth control are you or your husband or partner using now to keep from getting pregnant? Among women who are doing something to keep from getting pregnant.
      SelectSelect
    • IndicatorStateCounty
      Cigarettes - relapsed after pregnancy, amg quitters
      Based on a series of questions. In the 3 months before you got pregnant, how many cigarettes did you smoke on an average day? (A pack has 20 cigarettes.) In the last 3 months of your pregnancy, how many cigarettes did you smoke on an average day? (A pack has 20 cigarettes.) How many cigarettes do you smoke on an average day now? (A pack has 20 cigarettes.) Those who smoked before they got pregnant, then quit during pregnancy, but starting smoking again after delivery.
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      Cigarettes - smoking 3-6 months after pregnancy
      Calculated based on: How many cigarettes do you smoke on an average day now? (A pack has 20 cigarettes) Among women who smoked cigarettes within the 2 years before they got pregnant.
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      Cigarettes - avg smkd per day after pregnancy
      How many cigarettes do you smoke on an average day now? (A pack has 20 cigarettes.) Among women who smoked cigarettes within the 2 years before they got pregnant.
      SelectSelect
      Cigarettes - avg smkd per day after pregnancy (Choose a response)
      How many cigarettes do you smoke on an average day now? (A pack has 20 cigarettes.) Among women who smoked cigarettes within the 2 years before they got pregnant.
      SelectSelect

    • IndicatorStateCounty
      Infant - delivery type
      Delivery type comes from the birth certificate. Delivery options are vaginal delivery, first c-section, repeat c-section, vaginal delivery after c-section.
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      Infant - delivery type (Choose a response)
      Delivery type comes from the birth certificate. Delivery options are vaginal delivery, first c-section, repeat c-section, vaginal delivery after c-section.
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      Infant - born preterm
      The gestational age comes from the birth certificate. Delivery is considered preterm when the gestational age is 36 weeks or less.
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      Infant - gestational age
      Gestational age comes from the birth certificate and is categorized as early preterm (<32 weeks), preterm (32-36 weeks), normal term (37-41 weeks) and post term (42+ weeks).
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      Infant - gestational age (Choose a response)
      Gestational age comes from the birth certificate and is categorized as early preterm (<32 weeks), preterm (32-36 weeks), normal term (37-41 weeks) and post term (42+ weeks).
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      Infant - birthweight
      Infant's weight comes from the birth certificate and is categorized as low (<2,500 grams), normal (2,500-3,999 grams), or high (4,000+ grams).
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      Infant - birthweight (Choose a response)
      Infant's weight comes from the birth certificate and is categorized as low (<2,500 grams), normal (2,500-3,999 grams), or high (4,000+ grams).
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      Infant - placed in NICU after birth
      After your baby was born, was he or she put in an intensive care unit? Question not asked after 2015.
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      Infant - discharged within 48 hours
      After your baby was born, how long did he or she stay in the hospital? Among vaginal births.
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    • IndicatorStateCounty
      Infant - received 1-week postnatal check up
      Based on a series of questions. After your baby was born, how long did he or she stay in the hospital? Was your new baby seen by a doctor, nurse, or other health care worker for a one week check-up after he or she was born? Only babies released within 48 hours of delivery are included. Question not asked after 2011.
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      Sleep - baby co-sleeping
      How often does your new baby sleep in the same bed with you or anyone else? Babies are considered to be co-sleeping if the mother answers 'Always', 'Often', 'Sometimes', or 'Rarely.' Question not asked after 2011.
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      Sleep - positioning of baby
      In which one position do you most often lay your baby down to sleep now?
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      Sleep - positioning of baby (Choose a response)
      In which one position do you most often lay your baby down to sleep now?
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